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Learn Python by Building 10 Apps

Accept user input

user_input = input("Prompt: ")

if / else statements

if condition and condition or condition:
    do some things
elif conidtion or condition:
    do some things
else:
    do some things

while loops

while True:
    do some things

string formatting

name = 'Wes'
print("Hello {}".format(name))
print(f"Hello {name}")
print(f'Hello {name}')

functions

def my_function():
    do some things
    return new_thing

App3 - birthday

dates

import datetime
today = datetime.date.today()
# date = datetime.date(year, month, day)
May_1_2018 = datetime.date(2018, 5, 1)
days_difference = today.day - May_1_2018.day

times


timespans


App4

multiple files / modules


file i/o

import os
filename = os.path.abspath(os.path.join('.', 'journals', name + '.jrl'))
if os.path.exists(filename):
    with open(filename) as fin:
        for entry in fin.readlines():
            do some things

with open(filename, 'w') as fout:
    for entry in journal_data:
        fout.write(entry + '\n')

os independent path management

filename = os.path.abspath(os.path.join('.', 'journals', name + '.jrl'))

for-in loops

for n in item:
    print(n)

iterators

datacamp-iterator

_ _name_ _

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

doc strings

def load(name):
    """
    This method creates and loads a new journal.

    :param name: The base name of the journal to load.
    :return: A new journal data structure populated with the file data.
    """

App5

screen scraping

import requests
import bs4
url = 'https://www.wunderground.com/weather-forecast/72202'

# get page
response = requests.get(url)

# parse html (reponse.text) into DOM
soup = bs4.BeautifulSoup(response.text, 'html.parser')

# get location, condition, temp, scale (F vs C)
loc = soup.find(class_='region-content-header').find('h1').get_text()
condition = soup.find(class_='condition-icon').get_text()
temp = soup.find(class_='wu-unit-temperature').find(
    class_='wu-value').get_text()
scale = soup.find(class_='wu-unit-temperature').find(
    class_='wu-label').get_text()

http requests

import requests
url = 'https://www.wunderground.com/weather-forecast/72202'
response = requests.get(url)

virtual environments


tuples and named tuples

m = (22.5, 44.234, 19.02, 'strong')

temp = m[0]
quality = m[3]

m = 22.5, 44.234, 19.02, 'strong'

print(m)  # (22.5, 44.234, 19.02, 'strong') 

t, la, lo, q = m
# t=22.5, la=44.234, lo=19.02, q='strong'
import collections

WeatherReport = collections.namedtuple(
    'Measurement',
    'temp, lat, long, quality')

m = Measurement(22.5, 44.234, 19.02, 'strong')

temp = m[0]
temp = m.temp
quality = m.quality

print(m)

#  Measurement(temp=22.5, lat=44.234, long=19.02, quality='strong')

beautiful soup package

import bs4

soup = bs4.BeautifulSoup(reponse.text, 'html.parser')

slicing

nums = [2, 3, 5, 6, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23]

first_prime = nums[0]  # 2
last_prime = nums[-1]  # 23

lowest_four = nums[0:4]  # [2, 3, 5, 7]
lowest_four = nums[:4]  # [2, 3, 5, 7]

Middle = nums[3:6]  # [7, 11, 13]

last_four = nums[5:9]  # [13, 17, 19, 23]
last_four = nums[5:]  # [13, 17, 19, 23]

last_four = nums[-4:]  # [13, 17, 19, 23]

App6

http clients (binary data)

import os
import shutil
import requests

def get_cat(folder, name):
    url = 'http://consuming-python-services-api.azurewebsites.net/cats/random'
    data = get_data_from_url(url)
    save_image(folder, name, data)

def get_data_from_url(url):
    response = requests.get(url, stream=True)
    return response.raw

def save_image(folder, name, data):
    file_name = os.path.join(folder, name + '.jpg')
    with open(file_name, 'wb') as fout:
        shutil.copyfileobj(data, fout)

subprocesses / platform

import platform
if platform.system() == 'Darwin':
    subprocess.call(['open', folder])
elif platform.system() == 'Windows':
    subprocess.call(['explorer', folder])
elif platform.system() == 'Linux':
    subprocess.call(['xdg-open', folder])
else:
    print("We don't support your os: " + platform.system())

App 7

classes

class Creature:
    # initializer
    def __init__(self, name, level):
        self.name = name
        self.level = level

    def __repr__(self):
        return "Creature {} of level {}".format(
            self.name, self.level
        )

    def walk(self):
        print('{} walks around'.format(self.name))

inheritance

class Dragon(Creature):

    def __init__(self, name, level, scale_thickness):
        super().__init__(name, level) # initializer for Creature
        self.scale_thickness = scale_thickness

    def breath_fire(): ...

duck typing and polymorphism

# all types derive from Creature
creatures = [
        SmallAnimal('Toad', 1),
        Creature('Tiger', 12),
        SmallAnimal('Bat', 3),
        Dragon('Dragon', 50, 75),
        Wizard('Evil Wizard', 1000)
    ]

wiard = Wizard('Gandolf', 22)

for c in creatures:
    wizard.attack(c)
# Wizard knows how to battle any type of Creature

# Duck Typing
# "If it looks/acts like a Duck -- it's a duck"
# wizard.attack(c) in most languages would require 'c'
# to have inherited from Creature, given that .attack()
# takes a creature. Python's Duck Typing takes
# 'things that look like creatures'

App8

generator methods

# yield makes fibonacci a generator method
def fibonacci(limit):
    current = 0
    next = 1

    # after item is returned and processed,
    # execution returns and resumes
    while current < limit:
        current, next = next, next + current
        yield current
        # yield keyword returns one element of a sequence

yield from

def search_folders(folder, text):
    # for macOS if .DS_Store error
    # glob.glob(os.path.join(folder, '*'))
    items = os.listdir(folder)

    for item in items:
        full_item = os.path.join(folder, item)
        if os.path.isdir(full_item):
            yield from search_folders(full_item, text)
        else:
            yield from search_file(full_item, text)

def search_file(filename, search_text):
    # matches = []
    with open(filename, 'r', encoding='utf-8') as fin:

        line_num = 0
        for line in fin:
            line_num += 1
            if line.lower().find(search_text) >= 0:
                m = SearchResult(line=line_num, file=filename, text=line)
                yield m

recursion

def factorial(n):
    # base case - break out of loop
    if n <= 1:
        return 1

    return n * factorial(n - 1)

App9

dictionaries

info = dict()
info['age'] = 42
info['loc'] = 'Italy'

info = dict(age=42, loc='Italy')
info = {'age': 42, 'loc': 'Italy'}

location = info['loc']

if 'age' in info:  # test for key
    # use info['age']

lambda methods

def find_sig_nums(nums, predicate):
    for n in nums:
        if predicate(n):
            yield n

number = [1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 21, 34]
sig = find_sig_nums(numbers, lambda x: x % 2 == 1)
# sig -> [1, 1, 3, 5, 13, 21]

csv file format and parsing

class Purchase:
    def __init__(self, street, city, zipcode, state, beds, baths, sq__ft,
                 home_type, sale_date, price, latitude, longitude):
        self.longitude = longitude
        self.latitude = latitude
        self.price = price
        self.sale_date = sale_date
        self.type = home_type
        self.sq__ft = sq__ft
        self.baths = baths
        self.beds = beds
        self.state = state
        self.zip = zipcode
        self.city = city
        self.street = street

    @staticmethod
    def create_from_dict(lookup):
        return Purchase(
            lookup['street'],
            lookup['city'],
            lookup['zip'],
            lookup['state'],
            int(lookup['beds']),
            int(lookup['baths']),
            int(lookup['sq__ft']),
            lookup['type'],
            lookup['sale_date'],
            float(lookup['price']),
            float(lookup['latitude']),
            float(lookup['longitude'])
        )


def load_file(filename):
    with open(filename, 'r', encoding='utf-8') as fin:
        reader = csv.DictReader(fin)
        purchases = []
        for row in reader:
            p = Purchase.create_from_dict(row)
            purchases.append(p)

        return purchases

coding for python 3 and 2

try:
    import statistics # only Python 3.4.3+
except:
    import statistics_2_stand_in as statistics


numbers = [1, 6, 99, ..., 5]
the_avg = statistics.mean(numbers)

# statistics_2_stand_in.py
def mean(lst):
    # your implementation of mean here...
    return avg

list comprehensions

paying_usernames = [
    u.name                          # projection
    for u in get_active_customers() # source
    if u.last_purchase == today     # filter
]

generator expressions

# works like generator methods / yield
paying_usernames = (
    u.name
    for u in get_active_customers()
    if u.last_purchase == today
)

# You can not index into generators

data pipelines

all_transactions = get_tx_stream()

interesting_tx = (
    tx
    for tx in all_transactions  # calls transaction stream
    if is_interesting(tx)
)

potentially_sellable_tx = (
    tx
    for tx in interesting_tx  # calls above
    if is_sellable(tx)
)

nearby_sellable_interesting_tx = (
    tx
    for tx in potentially_sellable_tx  # calls above
    if is_nearby(tx)
)

App10

error and exception handling

if not search_text or not search_text.strip():
    raise ValueError("Search text is required.")

try / except

try:
    method1()
    method2()
    method3()
except ConnectionError as ce:
    # handle network error
except Exception as x:
    # handle general error

handling errors by type

try:
    search = input("Movie search text (x to exit): ")
    if search != 'x':
        results = movie_svc.find_movies(search)
        print("Found {} results.".format(len(results)))
        for r in results:
            print("{} -- {}".format(
                r.year, r.title
            ))
        print()
# Order from more specfic to more general
except ValueError:
    print("Error: Search text is required.")
except requests.exceptions.ConnectionError:
    print("Error: Your network is down.")
except Exception as x:
    print("Unexpected error. Details: {}".format(x))

raising errors

def find_movies(search_text):
    if not search_text or not search_text.strip():
        raise ValueError("Search text is required.")
        # raise will immediately return from function with error

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